||Abstract Observations of seismic anisotropy near the core?mantle boundary may yield constraints on patterns of lowermost mantle flow. We examine seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle beneath Australia, bounded by the African and Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces. We combined measurements of differential splitting of SKS?SKKS and S?ScS phases sampling our study region over a range of azimuths, using data from 10 long?running seismic stations. Observations reveal complex and laterally heterogeneous anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. We identified two subregions for which we have robust measurements of D??associated splitting for a range of ray propagation directions and applied a forward modeling strategy to understand which anisotropic scenarios are consistent with the observations. We tested a variety of elastic tensors and orientations, including single?crystal elasticity of lowermost mantle minerals (bridgmanite, postperovskite, and ferropericlase), tensors based on texture modeling in postperovskite aggregates, elasticity predicted from deformation experiments on polycrystalline MgO aggregates, and tensors that approximate the shape preferred orientation of partial melt. We find that postperovskite scenarios are more consistently able to reproduce the observations. Beneath New Zealand, the observations suggest a nearly horizontal  axis orientation with an azimuth that agrees well with the horizontal flow direction predicted by previous mantle flow models. Our modeling results further suggest that dominant slip on the (010) plane in postperovskite aggregates provides a good fit to the data but the solution is nonunique. Our results have implications for the mechanisms of deformation and anisotropy in the lowermost mantle and for the patterns of mantle flow.